The Peloponnesian War is a war between Sparta and Athens. This war reminds me of young children and their fights.
The way all this began was that Sparta had an uprising and called for back-up. Athens came to the “rescue”, but the Spartans didn’t let them help. This hurt Athens feelings and the war started. Very childish, right? Anyways, they start fighting. They decided to end the war in 444 BC, making it official by signing the “Thirty Year Peace Treaty”.
The second Peloponnesian War or the Archidamien war started in 432 BC when Athens broke the “Thirty Year Peace Treaty”. They imposed on Sparta’s allies, which was against the agreement. Hence the war started again. In this war, however, neither side had an advantage. In 430 BC a plague struck Athens killing 30,000; making them weak. The perfect time for Sparta to attack. Sparta went to attack Athens supply of silver and won.
The war had a brief peace when both sides’ generals died. For six years the peace lasted until Athens, once again, revoked Sparta, causing a third war to break out.
In Sicily there was an Athenian colony that was being attacked by Syracuse. Athens went to defend them and Sparta teamed up with Syracuse and beat Athens, taking their future by the reins, but Athens wasn’t completely beaten yet.
Athens still had life but was delayed by the Ionians, who were once allies rebelled. Athens wasn’t defeated though because the Ionians didn’t have war initiative and decided to surrender to Athens once again. Athens got back on their feet again though, and after four years of fighting Athens won many great victories, putting them back on stable ground again.
Athens and Sparta fought in the battle of Arginusae, an Athenian naval victory, though they weren’t able to finish off Sparta due to bad weather.
The Spartans fought back by heading to where all of Athens grain was coming from. The Athenians pursued but lost at the battle of Aegospotami in 405, basically ending the war. Sparta triumphed and Athens was conquered.
The Athenians were treated badly for a while, but then was given mercy and was able to rule their own city but was under the reign of Sparta. The Athens was no longer in its golden age and became just another state of Sparta.
As you can see, petty fights can cause huge blowouts with intense consequences. Thanks for reading!