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History 6, Review Essay 36 – How Rome Affects Us Today

Ancient Rome affects us today in ways that we don’t realize, in this essay this will come to light.

Rome has affected us in positive and negative ways. Let’s focus on positive first, the main five positive things are: architecture and engineering, you can see Roman architecture in today’s buildings. Entertainment, such as plays which evolved into musicals, which evolved into movies. Alphabet and numbers, the legal system, and language.

The negative ways are the legal system, the welfare mindset (us thinking that we have certain entitlements), and socialist outlook (becoming lazy and taking advantage of things).

The Romans used a bundle of rods with an axe attached to it to represent oppression and state power. The bundle was the people, the string that binds them, the government, and the axe is to show that anyone who tries to escape will face the risk of death.

In both positive and negative ways, the Roman way of life still affects us today. Rome is a part of the way that we live whether we like it or not. So, maybe learning about Ancient Rome isn’t that boring. Thanks for reading! See you in 7th Grade!

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History 6, Review Lesson 27 – The Life of Jesus Christ

Jesus Christ was the son of Mary, a miracle baby, with no father. Descended from the line of King David. The messenger of Christianity.

An angel came to Mary and told her that the Messiah will be born through her and that the child will be born in Bethlehem.

Mary and her husband Joseph, was in fact in Bethlehem attending a census when Christ was born. The first witnesses of the birth of Christ were shepherds, in the night angel came to them saying that the Great Messiah was born.

A group of wise men (or astronomers) saw a bright star in the sky, in their culture that means that a new king was born. So they went to King Herod, king of Bethlehem, asking where this new king was. No new son had been born in Herod’s family. When Herod found out he was furious that a new king was born and wasn’t his own child. So he made a decree that all baby boys under two years old in Bethlehem shall be killed.

When Joseph found out he took Mary and baby Jesus and fled to Egypt until Herod died. Baby Jesus was saved, but all the other baby boys under two years old were killed.

After Herod died Joseph and Mary returned to Nazareth, where Joseph’s business was and raised Jesus as his own. Jesus was trained as a carpenter and grew in wisdom and stature as he matured.

We don’t know much about Jesus’s life between his childhood and his adult life. We know that his ministry began in 32-33 AD when he was 30 years old. This was, in the Jewish culture, where spiritual leadership began. Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist, who had spent his life announcing the coming of Christ.

Jesus started attracted attention when he began to teach and preach after his baptism. He also gained attention where he performed many miracles, like turning six vats of water into wine at a wedding.

Jesus called 12 men to follow him and learn his ministry. These men were of low class, fishermen, but Jesus didn’t care. Jesus’s ministry consisted of two main functions, physical wonders and miraculous healings, and preaching, the normal stuff. Jesus also made the Jewish laws better, like you shall not kill anyone, but Jesus said, you shall not kill or think ill of someone.

Not everybody liked Jesus’s teachings though.  A few Jewish leaders didn’t like him changing their rules and telling them that they were falling short. They came up with a plan on how to get Jesus killed and on trial.

The Roman governor who was in charge of this case didn’t see anything wrong with Jesus’s preachings, but didn’t want to spoil his reputation and told the people do what you want with him. They crucified Jesus.

But, of course, Jesus came back alive three days after his death. His disciples who had been mourning, rejoiced and enjoyed every moment until 70 days later when God brought Jesus back to heaven.

As you can see, Jesus did many things in his life. He converted many people with his powerful preachings until his very last breath and 70 days later. I’m not a Christian but I respect Jesus Christ, the preacher of Christianity.

History 6, Review Lesson 26 – Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar was a very general and politician, in this essay I’m going to talk about his big accomplishments.

Julius was, at first a general, but rose up the ranks and became the consul of Rome in 59 BC. He named himself Dictator of Rome. After he became dictator he relived hardships and debt of citizens. He conquered North Africa, Gaul, and Spain, making then Roman colonies. He replaced the Roman calendar with the Julian calendar, the one we use today. He began many public building projects, and he gave citizenships to many of his supporters in outer provinces.

The citizens loved him, but the Senate was unhappy. Julius was taking all the power from him. So they made a plot to kill him; and succeeded! The citizens mourned, while the Senate celebrated the defeat of Julius Caesar.

If there is any lesson in this story of Julius Caesar, it would probably be, don’t take too much power, otherwise bad luck will come to you. Thanks for reading!

History 6, Review Essay 35 – Egypt

This year, my favorite world tour was Ancient Egypt.

I think that Ancient Egypt’s culture is very interesting and is like our modern day culture. The Egyptian wanted to look presentable in public, they always tried to be clean, they wore wigs, they had pets, and they were also strict with their rules, or laws. My favorite part about the Egyptians though, was how they treated the dead. I think that it’s really interesting.

After the person dies, the body is sent to the embalmer who then scoops out the organs and puts them into jars. The tops of the jars are the heads of each of the Egyptian gods; they’re supposed to “guard” the organs in the afterlife. He then puts the body in a bath of salt water and a few other chemicals, he leaves the body in there for a day and then wraps the body in white cloth. The embalmer then gives the body wrapped in white cloth to the family so they can mourn the passing. For the rich the body can stay for a few weeks. For the poor, maybe just a few days. The body then goes to the people who make the tombs. Then a grand funeral happens for the person they are put in their family’s catacombs.

I think that this process is very interesting, how they take out the organs, the wrapping in the white cloth, all that stuff. Do you think that this is interesting or am I just weird? J Thanks for reading!

 

History 6, Review Essay 34 – The fall of Ancient Rome

Every empire sees the end of their reign. In this essay I’m going to talk about the fall of Ancient Rome, one of the greatest empires in the ancient world.

By 476, the Western Roman Empire was the largest empire that the world had ever known. But, like every empire it started to shrink and decline.

There were six main reasons that made  Rome decline; the spilt of the of the empire, lack of military cohesion, the economic struggles, the political rivalries and civil wars, the moral decline of the nation, and the barbarian tribes who invaded Rome, causing its final downfall.

The spilt of Rome was supposed to be beneficial; instead it became one of the reasons of the downfall of Rome.  Emperor Diocletian thought that if he split Rome the East and West could have their own emperors focusing on them, and only them. But this caused political drama and civil wars between the two empires; making Rome weaker.

Because of all the infighting Rome didn’t have the resources to keep on expanding, which was a problem. Rome relied on slaves that they conquered, and what the slaves did for them. Because of this, the principle resources went down, making the economy weaker.

Their army consisted of their prisoners of war; when they were fighting against the barbarians they already had barbarians in their army. The Roman soldiers who were barbarians didn’t fight because it was like fighting distant family. This made the army weak.

And then, of course, there’s Rome’s moral atmosphere. ; which was rotten to the core all because of the violent gladiatorial games and other sickening entertainment that Rome had for the people. The Romans started getting lazy and started leading lives of ease. So when they were needed to work they refused. This is the type of mindset that leads to decline. In this case the decline of Rome. If you think about it, the Romans were digging their grave by following this mindset.

The people also started to not trust the government, each emperor was eventually murdered, didn’t rule well, or committed suicide. With the constant change of emperors the people stopped trusting the government and Rome’s leaders.

On top of all of these things Rome still had to fight the barbarians! If the emperors were better leaders all this could’ve been prevented. Most of the kings were just children, due to constant change of emperors; the kingdom was basically being ruled by the minster of the emperor who was weak minded and indecisive.

As you can see, after the 3rd Century Crisis things in Rome started getting horrible. The people and the emperors were digging their own deathbed. Don’t you agree? Thanks for reading!

 

 

History 6, Review Lesson 20 – The Peloponnesian War

The Peloponnesian War is a war between Sparta and Athens. This war reminds me of young children and their fights.

The way all this began was that Sparta had an uprising and called for back-up. Athens came to the “rescue”, but the Spartans didn’t let them help. This hurt Athens feelings and the war started. Very childish, right? Anyways, they start fighting. They decided to end the war in 444 BC, making it official by signing the “Thirty Year Peace Treaty”.

The second Peloponnesian War or the Archidamien war started in 432 BC when Athens broke the “Thirty Year Peace Treaty”. They imposed on Sparta’s allies, which was against the agreement. Hence the war started again. In this war, however, neither side had an advantage. In 430 BC a plague struck Athens killing 30,000; making them weak. The perfect time for Sparta to attack. Sparta went to attack Athens supply of silver and won.

The war had a brief peace when both sides’ generals died. For six years the peace lasted until Athens, once again, revoked Sparta, causing a third war to break out.

In Sicily there was an Athenian colony that was being attacked by Syracuse. Athens went to defend them and Sparta teamed up with Syracuse and beat Athens, taking their future by the reins, but Athens wasn’t completely beaten yet.

Athens still had life but was delayed by the Ionians, who were once allies rebelled. Athens wasn’t defeated though because the Ionians didn’t have war initiative and decided to surrender to Athens once again. Athens got back on their feet again though, and after four years of fighting Athens won many great victories, putting them back on stable ground again.

Athens and Sparta fought in the battle of Arginusae, an Athenian naval victory, though they weren’t able to finish off Sparta due to bad weather.

The Spartans fought back by heading to where all of Athens grain was coming from. The Athenians pursued but lost at the battle of Aegospotami in 405, basically ending the war. Sparta triumphed and Athens was conquered.

The Athenians were treated badly for a while, but then was given mercy and was able to rule their own city but was under the reign of Sparta. The Athens was no longer in its golden age and became just another state of Sparta.

As you can see, petty fights can cause huge blowouts with intense consequences. Thanks for reading!

History 6, Review Lesson 19 – Queen Esther

In history there are lots of stories, but I think that the story of Queen Esther is my favorite.

At the time the king of Persia was King Ahasuerus, before invading Greece he had a 180 feast to boost morale! One day while he was feasting with his advisors, high counsel men, and princes from the region he called on his wife so he could show off her beauty. She refused; she didn’t want to be the center of attention. The king was furious, so he divorced and exiled her.

He went to fight in Greece and when he came back he was looking for a new queen. Mordecai (the future queen’s cousin) told Hadassah, his cousin, to come and try to become the queen. She agreed and beautified herself. She was told not to tell anyone she was Jewish and changed her name to Esther. The king was in awe of her beauty and married her.

Sounds like a happy ending, right? Well, not yet. One character has not been not been introduced. His name is Haman. When Mordecai didn’t give him the respect he thought was due he wanted to kill all the Jews. Haman told the king this plan by saying that they are planning something against him. The king, not knowing that Esther was a Jew and that Haman was lying to him said yes to this plan; and called the day when all the Jews were to hanged Purim day.

When Esther found out she knew that her people weren’t planning anything and that Haman was lying. But she needed to prove it. She didn’t want her people to die! So, when the day came nearer she asked to have an audience with the king for dinner. The king accepted and invited her for dinner. At dinner Esther revealed that she was a Jew and that Haman was lying.

The king believed her and stopped Purim day and hung Haman on the same gallows that Haman built for the Jews on Purim day.

Now, that’s the happy ending. I hope that you enjoyed this story as much as I did! Thanks for reading!

History 6, Review Essay 33 – Ignatius, Clement, and Polycarp

Rome didn’t like Christians and would kill and torture them. In this essay I’m going to talk about three famous apostolic fathers that died when they refused to give up their faith.

Ignatius

Ignatius was one of the apostolic fathers that refused to give up his faith and gave up his life instead. Ignatius converted to Christianity at a young age and probably studied under Apostle John. Ignatius served as a bishop of Antioch and assisted in the development of the Church doctrine. He was one of the first, to promote worship on Lord’s Day (Sunday), rather than the Jewish Sabbath.

The Romans captured Ignatius and condemned him to death by wild beasts in the Coliseum.

Clement

Clement was an apostolic father like Ignatius; unlike Ignatius we know little about him. He most likely studied under Apostle Peter. Clement is remembered for writing to the Corinthian Church in support of hierarchical church government. He served as Bishop of Rome and was killed by Emperor Trajan.

Polycarp

Polycarp was an apostolic father that was a student of Apostle John like Ignatius. Polycarp was the Bishop of Smyrna at some point. His writings are one of the oldest surviving Christian works today!

The Romans arrested him at age 86. He was given a chance to walk free if he gave up his faith and burned incense to the emperor (whom the Romans worshipped). But Polycarp wouldn’t his famous quote before being sentenced to death was: “In 86 years Jesus has done me no wrong. How can I blasphemy my king and savior? Bring forth what thou whilst.” Polycarp was burned at the stake.

The work of an apostolic father was dangerous at that time, but these men stuck with their religions and faced death bravely. Because of that I give them mad respect, and you should too. Thanks for reading!

 

History 6, Review Essay 32 – The 3rd Century Crisis

The 3rd Century Crisis was when four rulers destroyed Rome’s finances and makes Rome fall into a 70 year crisis.

Marcus Aurelius was the cause of all this. He was abusing his power as emperor and was using up the city’s funds for his own pleasure; and he made taxes go up, which obviously made the Romans angry. When he died his son, Commodus took over the throne.

He was even worse than his father. Commodus was by far the most ignorant and self-centered emperor Rome has ever had. He abused his power, watching games instead of attending formal and important matters. He even renamed Rome, the months of the year, ships, fleets, even the people! ; after himself. Rome became Colonia Lucia Ania Commodion! And the people Commodites This infuriated the Senate, the Praetorian Guard, and of course the people. The last straw was when Commodus said that he was as strong as Hercules and claimed he was the descendant of Jupitar (a Roman god). The Senate and Praetorian Guard assassinated him and elected Pertinax as the new emperor.

Pertinax, like the last two emperors, abused his power and made the financial situation even worse than it was before! Making the taxes go up even more! This infuriated the people, the Senate, and the Praetorian Guard. So, he was murdered, after reigning for only three months. The Praetorian Guard sick and tired of these emperors ,bid the roll away. Didius Julianus paid 25,000 sesterces per Praetorian for the throne.

Turns out, Didius was just like the past three emperors. Wasted away money and making taxes go up. He was murdered and Septimus Severus was made emperor.

Septimus was the best emperor that Rome had seen a long time. He restored the financial situation and made the taxes go down. The people and Senate and Praetorian Guard loved him. He brought peace and stability for once. After reigning for 11 years he died due to natural causes (which hasn’t happened in a LONG time).

After Septimus Rome fell into the 3rd Century Crisis; Rome was in panic and close to the fall of their empire. Rome split up into three enemies because they couldn’t all agree on one emperor!

After 70 year of chaos Emperor Diocletin restored Rome to its former glory.

As you can see, you need to be careful of whom you put in charge or your kingdom could topple. Thanks for reading!

History 6, Review Lesson 17 – Socrates, Hyptia, and Ptolemy

This week I’ve learned a lot about different Greek astronomers, mathematicians, philosophers, and scientists. In this lesson I’m going to focus on a philosopher, a mathematician, and a scientist.

Socrates

Socrates was one of the earliest Greek philosophers. He was born in Alopece, a city in Athens. Socrates was an amazing philosopher, coming up with the Socratic Method. But he wasn’t always a philosopher; his father was a stonecutter, and so was Socrates until 431 BC when the Peloponnesian war broke out and Socrates went to go fight in it. When he came back he became a teacher of philosophy.

Socrates was an honorable man. When he was sent to trial and condemned to death by poison he took it bravely and didn’t try to escape. His methods are still used today, like the Socratic Method of questioning.

Ptolemy

Ptolemy was born in 100AD in Alexandria, Egypt, (used to be part of Rome when Ptolemy was born).Not much is known about Ptolemy’s early life besides knowing that he studied for 3 years with Aristotle.

Ptolemy was a scientist and astronomers, and like any astronomers he created theories about the sun and Earth and all the other planets (besides Uranus and Neptune, they weren’t discovered at the time). Most astronomers at that time thought that the sun and all the other planets revolve around Earth, but Ptolemy thought that we revolved around the sun, which is correct! But not many people liked a new view of life so that gave Ptolemy many enemies.

He died in 170AD. The cause of death is unknown maybe it was a peaceful natural death, who knows! However if Ptolemy didn’t come up with that theory of how we revolve around the sun and not the other way around we still might be thinking that we are the literal center of the universe!

Hyptia

Hyptia was born in Alexandria, Egypt and was raised by her father a math teacher. As she grew up her father saw the potential in her and started to teach her about math. He also fixed a special diet for her so her body could be as strong as her mind. Her father was very supportive of her. A lot of what Hyptia has accomplished is because of her dad.

Some of her accomplishments are, teaching, wrote many books about math, invented the astrolabe, and was greatly respected by the people around her because of her expertise.

Unfortunately, Hyptia got on the bad side of a bishop. He sent a mob to kill her. Hyptia inspires me, boys and girls reading this, how often do you hear about a woman that made and impact in history? Not often right? Well Hyptia did many things that not many woman back then could do. Thank you Hyptia, for everything that you’ve done.

As you can see these mathematicians, astronomers, and philosophers have done things many many years ago that are impacting us now, to this day! Thanks for reading!